Time: Wednesday, September 25, 8am – 12am
Location: Technical University of Denmark
This battery tutorial is part of the Nordic Battery Conference. The main target of this tutorial is PhD students working in the field of batteries and others who would like to have a brush up on applications, status, characteristics, performance, and management of lithium-ion batteries. Everyone is welcome and the tutorial is free for participants at Nordbatt2019.
The tutorial is facilitated by associate professor Dr. Daniel-Ioan Stroe and associate professor Dr. Erik Schaltz from Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark
Outline of Tutorial
Battery Energy Storage Technology
- Energy storage technologies – Overview
- Lithium-ion batteries – status and challenges
- Lithium-ion batteries – applications
- Performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries
- The need and role of Lithium-ion BMS
- BMS topologies and functionality
- Diagnostics and battery state estimation
- BTMS methods
Among the available energy storage technologies, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have detached as one of the few solutions, which are able to successfully meet the requirements imposed by both transportation sector and electrical grids. This has become possible thanks to the continuous research and development efforts, which have resulted in Li-ion batteries with high gravimetric and volumetric energy density, high power capability during both charging and discharging operation, very high efficiency and long calendar and cycle lifetime. Subsequently, after dominating the portable electronics market, Li-ion batteries have become the key energy storage technology for propelling electric vehicles (EV, HEV, and PHEV), and they are entering the renewable energy storage sector (e.g., grid support applications, microgrids, renewables’ grid integration enhancement). Nevertheless, Li-ion batteries are highly non-linear systems with their performance behavior strongly influenced by the short-term and long-term operating conditions. Therefore, in order to ensure the technical and economic viability of a certain project, accurate knowledge about the behavior of the lithium-ion battery is demanded by the industrial user for both short-term operation (seconds to hours – performance) and long-term operation (days to years – lifetime modeling). Furthermore, one of the most important aspects when it comes to the integration of Li-ion batteries into any pack is the battery management system (BMS). The basic functions of BMSs are to monitor the battery voltage, current, and temperature and to provide balancing, in order to allow the batteries to operate in a safe and reliable way. Furthermore, new BMSs have also more advanced functionality such as battery state estimation and diagnostics. Another important aspect of batteries management is the battery thermal management system (BTMS), which insures that the temperature of the cells is homogenous and kept within a desired interval.
The objective of this tutorial is to provide the audience with an extensive overview of the Li-ion battery energy storage technology, its operating principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Furthermore, an important part of the tutorial will be dedicated to the performance behavior of the Li-ion batteries as many BMS diagnostic algorithms are based on battery performance models; a deep understanding regarding the dependence of the battery performance parameters (e.g., capacity, power, resistance) on various parameters such as, temperature, load current, cycle depth, number of cycles etc. will be provided.
The second part of the tutorial will focus on the management of the battery systems. The tutorial will provide an extensive state of the art on the objectives and functionalities of the BMS and subjects such as balancing methods and topologies will be presented. As BMSs are continuously developing, they will have new functionalities such as battery state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation and they will be used for diagnostics purposes. Thus, different methods for battery state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation will be discussed. The performance and safety of a battery system is strongly dependent on the temperature. Thus, the tutorial will also present and discuss different BTMSs.
Associate Professor, PhD
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark
Daniel-Ioan Stroe – received the Dipl.-Ing. degree in automatics from “Transilvania” University of Brasov, Romania, in 2008, and M.Sc. degree in wind power systems from Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 2010. He has been with Aalborg University since 2010, from where he obtained his Ph.D. degree in lifetime modelling of Lithium-ion batteries in 2014. Currently, he is an Associate Professor with the Department of Energy Technology, where he leads the Battery Storage Systems research programme and the Battery Systems Testing Lab. He was a Visiting Researcher with RWTH Aachen, Germany, in 2013. He has co-authored over 100 journal and conference papers in various battery-related topics. His current research interests are in the area of energy storage systems for grid and e-mobility, Lithium-based batteries testing, modelling, diagnostics and their lifetime estimation.
Associate Professor, PhD
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark
Erik Schaltz – received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 2005 and 2010, respectively. From 2009 to 2012 he has been an Assistant Professor also at the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, and since 2012 he has been an Associate Professor the same place. At the Department he is the programme leader of the research programme in E-mobility and Industrial Drives and the vice programme leader of Battery Storage Systems. He has been the main supervisor in four completed PhD projects, guest editor in several journals related to batteries and e-mobility, and a part of more than 15 national and international research projects. His research interests include analysis, modeling, design, and control of power electronics, electric machines, energy storage devices including batteries and ultracapacitors, fuel cells, hybrid electric vehicles, thermoelectric generators, reliability, and inductive power transfer systems.
- S. S. Madani, E. Schaltz, S. K. Kær, “Heat Loss Measurement of Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries under Fast Charging Conditions by Employing Isothermal Calorimeter”, in Batteries, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1-15, 2018
- D.-I. Stroe, V. Knap, E. Schaltz, “State-of-Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Partial Charging Voltage Profiles”, in ECS Transactions, vol. 85, no 13, pp. 379-386, 2018
- S. S. Madani, E. Schaltz, S. K. Kær. Thermal Modelling of a Lithium Titanate Oxide Battery. ECS Transactions, vol. 87, no 1, pp. 315-326, 2018
- J. Meng, M. Ricco, L. Guangzhao, M. Swierczynski, D.-I. Stroe, A.-I. Stroe, R. Teodorescu, “An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Battery,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 1583-1591, 2018.
- D.-I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski, S. K. Kaer and R. Teodorescu, “Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries during Calendar Ageing – The Case of the Internal Resistance Increase,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 517-525, 2018.
- D.-I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski, A. I. Stroe, S. K. Kaer and R. Teodorescu, “Lithium-ion battery power degradation modelling by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” in IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1136-1141, 2017.
- J. de Hoog, J.-M. Timmermans, D.-I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski, J. Jaguemont, S. Goutam, N. Omar, J. Van Mierlo, P.Van Den Bossche, “Combined cycling and calendar capacity fade modeling of a Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide Cell with real-life profile validation,” Applied Energy, vol. 200, pp. 47-61, Aug. 2017.
- V. Knap, D.-I. Stroe, R. Purkayastha, S. Walus, D. Auger, A. Fotouhi, K. Propp, “Methodology for Assessing the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Degradation for Practical Applications,” ECS Transactions, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 479-490, 2017.
- D.-I. Stroe, V. Knap, M. Swierczynski, A.-I. Stroe, R. Teodorescu, “Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation : A Battery Lifetime Perspective,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 430-438, Jan.-Feb. 2017
- D.-I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski, A. I. Stroe, R. Laerke, P. C. Kjaer and R. Teodorescu, “Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Lifetime Models and Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 5009-5018, Nov.-Dec. 2016.
- V. Knap, S. K. Chaudhary, D.-I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski, B. I. Craciun and R. Teodorescu, “Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 3447-3456, Sept. 2016.
- A. Saez-de-Ibarra, E. Martinez-Laserna, D. I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski and P. Rodriguez, “Sizing Study of Second Life Li-ion Batteries for Enhancing Renewable Energy Grid Integration,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 4999-5008, Nov.-Dec. 2016.
- M. Swierczynski, D.-I. Stroe, A.-I. Stan, and R. Teodorescu. “Lifetime and economic analyses of lithium-ion batteries used for balancing wind power forecast error,” International Journal of Energy Research, Wiley, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 760-770, May 2015.
- M. Swierczynski, D.-I. Stroe, A.-I. Stan, and R. Teodorescu, S.K. Kær. “Lifetime Estimation of the Nanophosphate LiFePO4/C battery Chemistry used in fully Electric Vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 3453-3461, July-Aug. 2015
- D.-I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski, A.-I. Stan, R. Teodorescu, and S.J. Andreasen. “Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 4006-4017, Nov.-Dec. 2014.
- M. Swierczynski, D.-I. Stroe, A.-I. Stan, R. Teodorescu, and D.U. Sauer. “Selection and performance-degradation modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C battery cells as suitable energy storage systems for grid integration with wind power plants: An example for the primary frequency regulation service,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 90-101, Jan. 2014.